Wednesday, April 3, 2019

A Critical Evaluation Of Total Quality Management Management Essay

A Critical paygrade Of Total type prudence commission Essay theatrical economic consumption has plump the way for many wellness veneration faces in the world. The economic and physical compositional benefits much(prenominal) as increased customer satisfaction, improved processes and efficiency burn down be derived from flavor focus. The instruction execution of pure tone Management strategies bids the fashion model for the indicatement of systems procedures and activities compulsory to accomplish step. The execution of instrument of look guidance in wellness every last(predicate)(a)ot organisation adds an opportunity to deliver consistent, high gear shade and cost effective wellness c argon to customers.In its wellness Sector Reform programme for Trinidad and Tobago, the Ministry of wellness (MoH) identified feeling of wellness c ar service as a key casing to be addressed .The MoH strategical holdion for reference was paradeed in their guiding document Quality 2001 A Reality which was pitch in the direction of making timberland a earlierity. The strategy was big and aimed towards change caliber of wellness care service, creating a musical note culture and emphasising value for money as goals for improving health care exercise. angiotensin-converting enzyme of their specific key objectives was the introducing of framework for developing a Total Quality Management system at the overt healthcare creative activitys.The decentralisation of health services and the enactment of the regional wellness Authorities (RHAs) Act No.5, 1994 delineated the Governments intention to institute efficient health care systems for Trinidad and Tobago. The MoH would retain indebtedness for policy, formulation and regulation of health care. The formation of five (5) Regional health Authorities (RHAs) would have responsibility for the provision of health care services and implementation of management strategies to chance upon imp roved performance. The North Central Regional Authority (NCRHA) is one of the largest statutory bodies providing healthcare services in the country. Its pardon includes cardinal (3) major hospitals, two (2) district health facilities and fourteen (14) health centres.1.3 Problem DefinitionThe unexclusive confidence in the reference of health care services delivered by the public health orbit is genuinely low. The NCRHA in recent age has been the centre of media attention due to matters assertly related to medical negligence. The increase in adverse events and medical care complaints at its hospitals has been disturbing. fit in to MoH info in that respect were at least xvii (17) reported Adverse Events occurring at our nations hospital for the period 2004 to 2011 which resulted in uncomplaining injury, disability or death.Health care trends such(prenominal)(prenominal) as rapid advancements in public health management, shifts in customer demand for health service oral c ommunication and population health concerns have assortmentd the national amicable landscape.These trends have resulted in a more informed customer accessing services therefore demanding trim down waiting duration for services, improved medical care, raise facilities and overall quality health care from their service providers.The recent change in government in May 2010 has overly brought nigh strategic transformation. The Governments 7 Development Pillars (Pillars 1, 6) emphasizes the bringing together of all stakeholders to ensure that public services, especially essential services like health care, are affordable, come-at-able and of the highest quality.These current issues have strategic implications for public health celestial sphere organisations such as the RHAs. in that respectfore current TQM strategies should be critically surveyed and a parvenue organised court to the implementation of Quality Management essential be proposed. medical examination cover re lated complaints entropy received at the health care facilities NCRHA for the period 2008-2010Institution2008/092009/102010/2011TotalArima Health ease53181148382Caura Hospital142165124431Chaguanas Health Facility74114181369Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex71192513052941Mt Hope Womens Hospital148128106382Primary Care Health Center503035115Total1178154318994620 find out 1 NCRHA Complaints DataSource NCRHA Quality Department1.4 RationaleThe alter of public confidence in the quality of health care services at NCRHA is critical to the organisations future survival. The MoH is currently in its final drafting of legislation for the Establishment of a Health Service Accreditation Bill (2009), that would provide the framework for health care quality and accountability. The Act would facilitate the institution of the Health Services Accreditation Council Trinidad and Tobago (HSACTT) which is a pre-requisite to the introduction of National Health Insurance. The MoH in its policy stat ements to inform legislation for the HSACTT identified that both RHAs and occult hospitals moldiness be complaint with this Act. The MoH made further recommendations in its document, that the state would non provide funding or enter into any arrangements for procurement with un-accredited health facilities. The financing of public health sector organisation is highly qualified on government funding therefore RHAs must(prenominal) deliver quality healthcare to access public funding and shape up a rivalrous reward.The World Health Organisation (WHO) has also make up signs and key indicators to observe quality of care in developing countries as part of their millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 2015, examples such as the MDG (4) improved maternal healthcare and MDG (5) reduced infant mortality rates. The NCRHA has recently received negative publicity from alleged medical care negligence complaints regarding quality of maternal and infant care at their medical facilities. The MoH has mandated that a critical strategic issue for all RHAs is the usefulness of maternal and infant health care this is part of their efforts towards achieving MDGs target for Trinidad and Tobago.1.5 investigate QuestionHow sack up NCRHA utilize their Quality Management dodge to deliver quality health care and gain agonistic advantage?1.6 Objectives1. To critically evaluate current Quality Management strategies employ at the NCRHA to deliver quality health care to their customers2. To ascertain any gaps by benchmarking current strategies against theoretical framework for TQM implementation3. To design a framework for the implementation of a heart and soul quality management strategy for NCRHA1.7 heraldic bearingTo synthesize a comprehensive Quality Management Strategy to modify the NCRHA to progress from a state of quality awareness to quality readiness, indeed enabling NCRHA to improve quality health care and gain competitive advantage in the Public Health Sector.2.0 Literature Review2.1 Quality Management DefinedThe concept of quality revolves around neating and colossal the customer expectation. The customers needs are ever changing and the demand for high quality requires a systems appeal towards improved quality. The idea of quality management is not derived from one single source only when is a disposition of ideas that has been called by various names. According to lynch (2003) Total Quality Management (TQM) elicit be define as the modern strategic greet to quality management. ASQ (2006) has indicated that the term TQM has lost its flavor and in recent years has been subsumed under the term Quality Management. This foot be further argued by Hannagan (2002) who raise that the approach can be recognized by any title of TQM or strategic quality management. However it can be agreed that TQM is a strategic approach to achieving quality and a sustainable competitive advantage for an organization. There have been many theorists who have contributed to the quality movement and has also has influenced the TQM philosophy.2.2 TQM TheoriesTQM can be described as a management philosophy, characterized by a common set of principles, lend oneselfs and techniques Dean Bowen (1994) in time it tends to be examined by numerous authors from dissimilar perspectives. The perspectives of three main found TQM philosophers or Quality gurus would be discussed and their livinging TQM methods. It is theorised by Crosby (1979) that quality is conformation to requirements therefore one arrives at the concept of zero defects. He also focuses on organisational factors such as leadership, culture and training. Deming (1986) was considered one of the founders of TQM his philosophy can be summarised in his fourteen management principles. These would include management perpetration to quality raise quality awareness, employee empowerment and training. The underpinning opening creation that quality is a process and not a program ther efore it should be ongoing in the organisation. Juran (1989) focuses on quality intentning, quality control and quality improvement. There can be three levels of quality management outlined which are strategic quality management, operational quality and workforce that concerns its ego with work process (Juran 1989). The philosophies of these quality gurus can be summarised as a management system that involves management loading for a customer focussed organisation in which all employees participates in continual improvement. The system integrates the use of strategy, culture, training and effective communication to achieve TQM.2.3 TQM ElementsASQ(2006) identified essential elements to TQM that organisations must define either in their core values or principles on which the organisation operates. These elements would be discussed with the purpose of understanding the key concepts that must be considered in quality management implementation. An analysis of writings provides an exh austive dip of key elements however critical components would be discussed. While TQM is viewed by dint of different perspectives what is written well-nigh TQM is based on a common set or sub-set of key components (Harris, 1995).The fundamental assumption of TQM is planning for the design and delivery of products and services that fulfil the needs of the customers (Dean and Bowen 1994). The customer ultimately decides whether the efforts are worthwhile. According to Waldman (1995) in order to create a quality culture all members of the organisation must be involved in the quality process. The social occasion of employees in the quality process is critical to its success in the organisation. The grooming of a strategic plan which encompasses the systems approach to quality management is a core component. The TQM process is back up by continual process improvement in the organisation.All key activities in the organisation should be measurable so that their improvement can be dem onstrated and the benefits achieved. According to ASQ(2006) in times of organisational change, effective communication plays an in-chief(postnominal) role in maintaining employee aggroup spirit and motivation Training and education play a critical role in the TQM organisation, Juran (1986) postulates that training is required when undertaking a quality effort in an organisation in order to teach employees how to think about qualityFigure 2 Elements of TQM in the organisation2.4 TQM Implementation ApproachesThe ASQ(2006) states that there is no one solution for implementing TQM for all situations therefore organisations TQM strategies would vary since culture, management practices are unique however the key elements discussed must be present in some format also there is a suggested generic wine model for implementation.Generic model for implementing TQM1Top management learns about and decides to commit to TQM. TQM is identified as one of the organisations strategies2The organisat ion survey current culture, customer satisfaction and quality management system3Top management identifies core values and principles to be apply and communicates them4A TQM master plan is developed on basis of go 1, 2 and 35The organisation identifies and prioritizes customer demands and aligns products and services to meet those demands6Management maps the critical processes through which the organisation meets its customers needs.7Management oversees the formation of teams for process improvement efforts8The momentum of the TQM effort is managed by the steering committee9 motorbuss contribute individually to effort through hoshin planning, training, coaching, or other methods.10Daily process management and standardization take place11Progress is evaluated and the plan revisited as call for12Constant employee awareness and feedback on status are provided and a reward/recognition process is establishedFigure 3 standard for implementing TQMThe review of books on TQM revealed that an attempt towards TQM will not make headway unless the discussed elements are applied and maintained in the TQM strategy. There is extensive literature that provides an understanding of the ideal TQM program however more enquiry is needed to determine how all its factors fit together to form a theory that provides a maximum understanding of what TQM currently is (Waldrnan 1993). This is further supported by Powell (1995) that although TQM became part of business theory, its role as a strategic alternative seems to have remained virtually unexamined in strategic management.2.5 TQM in HealthcareThe issue of quality has become even more pressing for healthcare organisations. In a time of economic slowdown and financial constraints by government, the NCRHA is promptly faced with budget cuts and increased workload for human resources. There is a growing demand for quality in health care and for mechanisms such as quality management strategies and accreditation programs to maint ain quality health services. The direct implications of poor quality in healthcare such as music errors, increased infection rates and deaths are severe. According to Segonin (2005) developing countries are adapting quality management and accreditation standards in healthcare in order to work towards standardising healthcare services and to ensure high quality of healthcare for citizens. Vretveit (2001) suggest that some countries are conducting programs that consist of quality strategies and accreditation however little look into is available to show evidence of efficacy. The available question on TQM implementation in public healthcare systems in developing countries is sparse and provides anecdotal information.2.7 TQM Healthcare Best PracticesThe implementation of TQM in healthcare organisations is important for improving quality of clinical care to patients but also to satisfy accreditation requirements. Mayer (1994) suggests benchmarking is the practice of regularly c omparing oneself to other performing similar activities for continuously quality improvement (CQI). It is postulated by Campbell (1994) that until recently benchmarking has scarcely been used in the clinical setting primarily because of a limited knowledge of TQM methods and omit of support for initiatives.Underwood (1994) refers to a slipperiness consume of Lloyd Noland Hospital continuous quality improvement initiatives in clinical management of pneumonia patients using benchmarking process with a TQM approach in an effort to achieve improved outcomes for pneumonia patients. The hospital theorize a cross functional team in order to successfully benchmark and develop a total patient care process. The team utilised quality hawkshaws such as brain storming, flowcharting clinical pathways, monitor and certificate. The teams findings on the quality improvement process were clinical benchmarking is a TQM tool that attempts to improve patient outcomes which is a data driven TQM/CQI practice in healthcare that is current and a future naturalism.2.8 SummaryBased on the literature reviewed conducted so far the detective would attempt to critically assess the TQM practices at the NCRHA using the above theoretically implementation framework. The findings of this analysis would be synthesised and gaps would be identified. This data would assist in a design of a strategy for TQM implementation at the NCRHA. This take aim would provide fresh insights in the areas of total quality management in public health sector organisations in developing countries.3.0 Research Design3.1 Research ParadigmEpistemology is concern with what constitutes acceptable knowledge and the nature of knowledge itself (Saunders, 2009). In contrast ontology can be define as existence concerned with the nature of reality and the assumptions the investigator have about the way the world operates and a commitment to a particular view (Saunder,2009). This study would be based on subjectivism epistemological or interpretative stance in that the interrogationer would be eliciting the views and opinions of senior management, operational managers, medical staff and support staff in the organisation. The exploreer would adopt a phenomenological paradigm since it would require understanding the straits of view of the research subjects.Considering the relatively new development of TQM research, in Trinidad and Tobago public health care as well as the applicability of private sector research, an inductive approach was chosen. According to Saunders (2009) inductive approach is peculiarly concerned with the context in which the event takes place. A qualitative approach would be followed since a gaffe study research design would be adopted this is supported by Yin (1989) who advocates that variables under study cannot be manipulated but somewhat observed and data extrapolated from them.3.2 Research MethodologyThe exploratory approach was found to be most suitable for this stu dy given the lack of research regarding TQM implementation in the public health care sector (Eisenhardt, 1989b). The utilization of a case study strategy is proposed to evaluate the TQM practices of NCRHA. The NCRHA constitutes three (3) tertiary hospitals, two district health facilities and fourteen (14) health centres, this research would be examining the sub-units within the organisation and an embedded case study would be fashioned. This approach would give the detective an opportunity to study and evaluate a phenomenon that few have considered. The design described would provide the advantage for real life issues to be brought to the forefront. The NCRHA was chosen for the case study since there are current TQM strategies implemented in the organisation. Once the organisations ethic committee gives citation for the research and the Quality Department Manager is informed a earn of request would be forwarded requesting facilitation by the various health facilities Quality Coo rdinators (QC). The researcher would use a triangulation method since different data collecting techniques would be used in this study to ensure the data telling what is being said. The combination of interviews, focus groups, archival documentation and observations techniques would be utilised by the researcher. There would be interviews conducted with senior managers and hospital administrator focused on TQM leadership and current status of initiatives. Documentation would be reviewed such as accreditation plans, quality plans and vision, mission of the company. Since TQM must have employee involvement a focus group would be administered to gauge employees awareness and observation would be conducted outback(a) of these activities. Due to time constraints for this study a cross sectional studies would be conducted over a stipulated period time. Saunders (2009) postulates that cross sectional studies may be used in qualitative methods since many case studies data techniques such as interviews are conducted over a short period of time.3.3 Research Technique/Method3.3.1 Data Collection3.3.2 Primary Data SourcesInterviewsThe data source of this research would include semi-structured interviews with hospitals administrators and senior executive team. This approach was taken to allow the researcher an opportunity to explore necessary issues without inhibiting the interviewee to volunteer important information. Data would be collected on areas such as organisation leadership, culture and quality management systems for qualitative analysis.DocumentationDocumentation would be reviewed from to verify involvement in TQM process. This would include accreditation plan, quality plans, vision and mission. ultimately material substantiating a TQM initiative would be reviewed. These documentations would be sourced from quality department and CEOs office.ObservationsThere would be researcher observations conducted to find evidence of TQM such as posters, banners and custo mer service interactions. This would serve to corroborate the interview and documentation findings.Focus GroupsThe researcher would conduct employee focus groups to obtain views on TQM implementation activities in the organisation since employee involvement and awareness is critical to its success. These groups would be interviewer-led structure and kept to 6-8 persons to allow for moderator /researcher control to maintain focus. This technique would be conducted several times with similar participants to establish trend and patterns for data disposition and analysis.3.3.3 Secondary Data SourcesThe literature review for this research proposal thus far used several secondary data sources. This data was assessed for ascendence and reputation of the source. The review of written materials from industry experts or gurus, journals, organisations records and government publications would be accessed and referenced as part of this study. This approach would allow for more time for analys is and interpretation of data.3.3.4 Sample size and sampling methodSince a case study approach was taken the use of non-probability sampling would be applied by the researcher so that sample selection can be made based on subjective judgement. This view is supported by Saunders(2009) that within business research such as case study this may either be not possible or appropriate for answering the research question. The use of purposive sampling technique would enable the researcher to use judgement in selecting cases that would enable the research question and objectives to be answered. According to Saunders (2009) is form of sample is often used in case study research and when a selection of cases would peculiarly informative. It is also further suggested for a general study a suitable sample size of between 25 to interviews are undertaken (Creswell 2007).3.3.5 Data analysisA qualitative analysis on this data would be conducted, this would require the condensing, categorising and also restructuring as narrative to support for significant analysis to be derived. The interviews with respondents would be auditory sensation recorded and reproduced via word processing. It would also be illustrious during transcribing the tone and non-verbal communication of the participants. A process of data sampling would be used to reduce time for audio transcribing since this would allow for the researcher to heel sections pertinent to the study. The interviews conducted would be saved in separate word documents and filename maintained for confidentiality. The recommendation by Silverman (2007) on list of useful organisation symbols would be used for this study. The precise work format for NVivo software would be utilised to ensure accurate analysis can be conducted.3.3.6 qualitative AnalysisAnalytical induction approach was adopted since it would allow for an intensifier explanation of the case study so as to empirically establish the causes of a specific phenomenon (Sa unders2009). This would be most appropriate since the researcher case study sampling took a purposive approach which would allow for the phenomena to be explored. The use of thematic analysis would be utilised to identify data that relate to classified patterns these would be catalogued into sub-themes for emerging patterns. This would lead to building a compelling argument derived from the literature reviewed.3.3.7 EthicsResearch moral philosophy is the delineate as a question of how we formulate and clarify our research area, design, gain access to data and write up our research findings in a moral and responsible way (Saunder2009). The researcher proposes the following ethical issues during this study.The researcher would have to submit a research proposal for cheers from the NCRHA ethics committee before this study can be conducted.Informed consent would be solicited from participant for possible privacy and confidentiality issuesParticipants would be informed of its willfu l nature and the right to withdraw from the process.The data generated during this study would have facsimile symbols to maintain confidentialityThe researcher would be cognisant of the ethical concerns with regards to qualitative research since objectivity must be observed during analysis so the data is not misrepresented.3.3.8 Reliability and ValidationValidity in research must be considered when conducting a case study research since it is concerned with whether findings are really what they appear. The researcher must be careful of generalisabilty particular when the case study is conducted in one organisation (Saunders2009). The research design for this study incorporated triangulation so that different data techniques can be used within one study which allows for cross verification. The researcher would also chitchat peer consultation prior to final draft of the report. According to Yin(2003) construct validity is especially problematic in case study research and it can be a source of criticism due to its subjectiveness it is further recommended the use of case study protocol to achieve reliability. The researcher prior to data collection would develop a case study protocol that includes more than one survey instrument and procedure to be followed in using the instrument.3.3.9 Limitations to MethodologyThe researcher may not provide a representative population for the case study.This research methodology can be time devour and costlyThere is a probable for researcher bias during the studyThe study in also reliant on subject participation in the research data collection3.3.10 Resources RequiredThis study would require a number of resources such an audio recording device for interviews, purchase if NVivo software, internet and computer capabilities to complete this report. There would be a need to access secondary data such as journals, written text and peer view materials for further literature review.4.0 PlanThe research study would require an ongoin g literature review and write-up as the study progress. The research proposal would require ethics approval from the organisation and university ethics committee this would be key milestone in this expulsion. The appointment of dissertation supervisor and the gathering of resources for this research should be completed. The planning of interviews, focus groups, documentation reviews have some schedule over roundabout since meeting with senior managers would require some coordination. Due to the time consuming process involved in qualitative analysis the researcher would plan to conduct most interviews with-in a 4 weeks time frameThe sting of data would be concurrent since interviews would be transcribed after being conducted. The data analysis would be key milestone in the project since critical analysis would be required for this study. The researcher would aim for a completed draft six weeks before submission to allow for edit and additional research work. This would allow supe rvisor review and approval prior to submission. Please attached Gnatt chart of activities and timescales.5.0 ReferencesAmerican Society for Quality, 2006 the Certified Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence Hand Book. 3rd Ed. RussellT. WestcottCrobsy, P.B. (1979). Quality is free. invigorated York Mc Graw HillCreswell, J. (2007) Qualitative injury and Research Design Choosingamong louvre Approaches 2nd Ed. Thousand Oaks, CAsageDean, James and David Bowen (1994). Management possibility and TotalQuality Improving Research and Practice through surmise Development. Academy of ManagementReview, (1930) 392-418Deming, E. W. (1986). Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, MA, MIT Center forAdvanced EngineeringEisenhardt, K. M. (1989b). create theories from case study research.Academy of management Review, 14, 532-550Hannagan, T., 2002 Management Concepts and Practices. 3rd Ed. FTPrentice HallHarris, C.R. (1995). The Evolution of the Quality Management AnOverview of the TQM Literature. Canad ian journalof Administrative Sciences, (122), 95-105Juran, J. M. (1989). Juran on Leadership for Quality An Executivehandbook. New York The cede PressLynch, R., 2003 Corporate Strategy. 3rd Ed. Harlow FT Prentice HallMinistry of Health, Quality 2001 A Reality, A strategy for implementingand monitoring a continuous Quality ImprovementProgramme for the Health Sector in Trinidad andTobago, Original indite-May, 1997, formalize by HSQC-March 1998, Ministry of Health Government Printer1999Ministry of Health, Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) Act No.5 1994,Ministry of Health, Government PrinterMinistry of Health 3rd Draft Adverse Events Policy and Guidelines,Directorate of Quality Management, January 2011Ministry of Health March 2009, albumen Paper for the establishment of theHealth Services Accreditation Council of Trinidad andTobagoSaunders, M., (2009) Research methods for business students. fifth Ed., FTPrentice HallSegouin, C. (2005). Globalization in Health Care Is InternationalS tandardization of Quality a Step Towards Outsourcing.International ledger for Quality in Health Care, 17 (4),277-279.Shin, Y.S. (1995). Hospital Accreditation A worldwide Perspective. World Hospitals,.31 (1), 22-28Silverman, D. 92007) A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably bargain-priced Book about Qualitative Research. London SageThe Peoples Partnership Governments Seven Development Pillars (Pillars1, 6), 2010 Prosperity for all manifesto of the PP forUnited People to achieve sustainable development forTrinidad and TobagoWaldman, D. A. (1993). A theoretical consideration of the leadership andtotal quality management. Leadership Quarterly, 4,65-79Yin, R. (1989). solecism study research. Beverley Hills, CA Sage PublicationsYin, R.K. (2003) Case study Research Design and Methods 3rd

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